Basic Crime Information
Types of Crime
Environmental Criminology
Heirarchy of Crime

CPTED Crime Analysis

Design Principles
Design Guidelines
Design Examples
Origins of CPTED

CPTED Crime Analysis

CPTED Neighbourhood Analysis Process
      Demographic Analysis
      Crime Analysis
      Crime Statistics from Police Reports and Calls
      Site Analysis
      Use Analysis
      Neighbourhood Consultation / User Analysis
      Pathway Analysis

      CPTED Neighbourhood Analysis Process

Demographic Analysis

The object is to identify population characteristics that impact crime such as high-risk or vulnerable populations. Some populations such as seniors have higher levels of fear.

• gender

• income

• incidence of low-income

• government transfer payments

• tenure

• population / density

• age distribution

• household size / make-up

• ethnicity (mother tongue)

• mobility (2 year and 5 year)

Crime Analysis

The object is to identify types of crime in the neighbourhood, who is doing it, how, why and when the crime is being done.

Crime Statistics from Police Reports and Calls *

• geographic 911 calls maps - for broad definition of city wide spatial distribution

• geographic reported crime maps - 9 categories, scale to requirements of study

• crimes to property

• theft from auto (TFA)

• Theft of auto (TOA)

• commercial break and enter (Burglary)

• residential break and enter (Burglary)

• mischief

• crimes to person

• robbery

• assault (all levels of assault including sexual assault)

• other

• drug offenses

• sex trade or prostitution offenses

• temporal analysis

• written reports by police

*Keep in mind the weaknesses of unreported crime, changing techniques of police reporting



Site Analysis

The object is to study the site numerous times, on different days, different weeks, even different seasons if possible. For example, places look different at night and places are used differently during the week rather than the weekends.

• consider time, place, scale

• look for pathways and activity nodes

• look for debris ie. needle caps, butts, condoms, slurpy straws

• look for maintenance levels, graffiti

• signs of remediation / retrofit ie. graffiti removal, window bars

• look for neighbourhood caring

• night conditions ie. lighting

• consider prospect and refuge opportunities

• look for potential guardians

• people watch; who’s going where

Use Analysis

The object is to search for activity nodes that attract, facilitate or generate crime. The following list shows uses that are often, but not always, associated with crime.

• schools

• convenience stores

• liquor establishments

• fast food outlets

• coffee houses

• shopping malls

• youth homes

• drug houses

• methadone dispensary (drug store)

• parks

• low-income housing projects

Neighbourhood Consultation / User Analysis

The object is to understand the various groups that live in the neighbourhood and who moves through the neighbourhood, to establish what are the patterns of movement of these groups. The focus is on high-risk and vulnerable populations.

• consider users of the past, present and future

• itemize each group and the typical movement patterns

• consider which groups live in the neighbourhood and which come to the neighbourhood

• interview neighbourhood groups and organizations

• informal discussions with passers-by during site visits such as postal workers, commuters

• interview business owners, building managers and strata council representatives.

Pathway Analysis

The object is to identify pathways on and surrounding the site. Some of these pathways may carry high-risk populations and some may carry vulnerable populations. Consider future pathways as well as present and past.

• mass transit such as buses, rapid transit, transfer loops and stations

• automobile traffic densities

• pedestrian pathways by different users

• bicycle pathways


Site Address: _______________________Date: ______________________

Time: ______________ Weather:__________________________________

Is this a low medium or high crime neighbourhood?

• low ______________________________________________________

• medium ___________________________________________________

• high ______________________________________________________

What types of street crime and nuisance behaviour should be considered?

– Theft from Auto ______________________________________________

– Theft of Auto ________________________________________________

– Break and Enter (residential or commercial) _________________________

– Robbery____________________________________________________

– Assault ____________________________________________________

– Graffiti ____________________________________________________

– Skateboarding _______________________________________________

– Street Prostitution (soliciting or servicing) ___________________________

– Injection Drug Abuse ___________________________________________

– Other ______________________________________________________

Surrounding Uses (Are there any uses that may impact crime activity?):

Note: The following list suggests some uses that are often, but not always associated with crime.

– High Schools _________________________________________________

– Liquor Establishments __________________________________________

– Convenience Stores ___________________________________________

– Social Housing _______________________________________________

– Drug Houses _________________________________________________

– Mass Transit Stations __________________________________________

– Youth Homes ________________________________________________

– Low Income Family Social Housing ________________________________

– Methadone Dispensary (Drugstore) ________________________________

– Parks ______________________________________________________

– Second Hand Stores ___________________________________________

– Other ______________________________________________________

Crime Data

– Year to Date Calls for Service to Site Address

– Optional Reported Incidents in the Area

– Optional Temporal Analysis of Incidents in the Area


Site Analysis (Search for debris such as needle caps, condoms and wrappers, cigarette butts, graffiti, graffiti remediation, slurpy straws, look for potential guardians and areas of concealment (prospect and refuge), consider night and day (lighting), signs of neighbourhood programs, maintenance levels, bars on windows, people watch.)


Pathway Analysis (Search for walking, driving or cycling pathways used by potential offenders or by vulnerable populations. Observe beaten down grass, bent top edge of fencing, scuff marks from climbing, busyness of the street vehicles, search for cut-throughs.)


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